Skip to main content

ALL ABOUT MS Diagnosis of the disease (Part 7)

Diagnosis of the disease

MS is not easy to diagnose. There is no specific test that could be diagnosed unambiguously, as there is no symptom that is specifically characteristic of that disease, or that only occurs therein. Diagnosis of MS must begin with a detailed history of the disease, followed by a complete physical examination, not only neurological, but also all other somatic systems. It is necessary to make certain laboratory tests to exclude possible other causes of symptoms.

In addition, in order to diagnose MS, it is necessary, in the case of a relapse-remitent form, that there are at least two neurological disorders that reflect the demyelination period separated by a period of at least 30 days. Or, in the case of a primarily progressive form, there must be a slow progression of symptoms over a period of at least 6 months.
Diagnosis of MS can be set only on the basis of clinical data and physical examination, but usually, for the diagnosis and initiation of therapy, additional methods are used in diagnostics. These are magnetic resonance (MRI) of the brain and spinal cord, evoked brain potentials, and analysis of cerebrospinal fluid.

Magnetic resonance is a widely used method in diagnosing MS. In the MRI, the demyelinating area in the brain and spinal cord is seen as a white spot. The magnetic resonance of the lower parts of the spinal cord (thoracic and lumbar spine) is rarely done because it often does not produce good results, because its interpretation is difficult due to numerous artifacts. This non-invasive method can track the progression of the disease in detail.

It should be pointed out that MS diagnosis can not be established solely on the basis of MRI, as its results can often refer to other diseases of the central nervous system.
Evoked potentials measure the electrical activity of certain regions of the brain in response to the stimulation of certain groups of nerves. This method is used as an ancillary diagnostic tool and allows demyelination to be detected which otherwise would not be possible to observe. In our conditions, the visual, auditory and sensory potentials are most often used to assess the passage of electrical impulses through appropriate functional paths.

In the analysis of cerebrospinal fluid, there are data on the existence of chronic inflammation of the central nervous system. Cerebrospinal fluid is tested for the existence of oligoclonal bands representing immunoglobulins found in 90-95% of people with MS (but also in persons with some other disorders) and a sign of the existence of an immune response within the central nervous system. Together with MRI and clinical data, the presence of oligoclonal tape helps to definitively diagnose MS. The cerebrospinal fluid is obtained by the lumbar puncture procedure. The analysis of cerebrospinal fluid also helps to exclude the possibility of some viral infection and other diseases that cause neurological symptoms similar to MS.


Popular posts from this blog

Corticosteroids and MS (Part 1)

Corticosteroids and MS (Part 1) Each of us has been treated with Cortisteroids, and Corticosterioids have been used in the treatment of MS since 1950, and today they are the treatment therapy in the treatment of relapse of the disease. The main goal of treatment emergent functional recovery of neurological deficits and prevent the accumulation of neurological deficits that are acquired during an acute exacerbation. With this introduction, they surely started moving your questions around the head. So let's go.
What are corticosteroids?
Corticosteroids are drugs we call steroid hormones. They are synthetically produced hormones and used to treat various pathological conditions in humans. They share glucocorticoids and Mineralocorticoids, and a primitive glucocorticoid is a cortisol that glows the adrenal gland. They can be applied locally as an aerosol-inhalable, skin cream, eye drops or nose, given as tablets, locally into the common space, intravenously and intramuscularly. Drugs from …

ALL ABOUT MS Treatment (Part 11)

Treatment of relapse and some symptoms
Routine therapy for acute relapses is an intravenous high dose of corticosteroids, usually methylprednisolone at a dose of 500 to 1000 mg daily for three to five days. The aim of this therapy is to stop the attack as soon as possible in order to keep as little a consequence of this attack. Although generally effective in short-term symptom relief, corticosteroids do not have a significant impact on long-term recovery. In addition, longer therapy with corticosteroids can lead to osteoporosis, high blood pressure, psychotic reactions, convulsions, and cataracts.
Spasticity, which can be manifested as a permanent contraction caused by an increased muscle tone or transient spasm, is usually treated with muscle relaxants and mitralants such as baclofen, tizanidine, diazepam, clonazepam, and dantrolene. Physical therapy and exercises help preserve existing functions, while various aids, such as a walkway, a stick and a prosthesis, serve to keep the patie…

Food Sustainability

Food Sustainability
When we go to the procurement, we need to carefully select the type of food we buy, and it is very important to check the shelf life, or the date of production, in order to prevent possible negative health consequences. Here are some of the most common questions about food sustainability.

What does the term of food lasts and what is the sustainability of certain foods? The shelf life is the minimum shelf life, the date by which the food retains its characteristic properties if properly stored. Food sustainability depends on the composition, the technological process of production, the sterilization process, the food additives, the type of packaging, the transport and the recommended manner of storage. Some foods are more susceptible to microbiological deterioration and have a short shelf-life. Such products are milk products, creams, shames, ice creams, meat and meat products, eggs. Other foods are subject to chemical changes, especially under the influence of air, an…